Opening lines in novels are by far the most important sentences that any writer will write.
I don't mean they are artistically the most important. If you want your novel to be well-reviewed by the critics and perhaps even go down in history as one of the classics, every single word you write, from the first to the last, contributes equally the novel's overall artistic success.
But in commercial terms (and you must never forget that publishing a novel is a business), the job of an opening line is to hook the agent, the publisher or the reader.
If these people cannot get beyond an uninspiring opening sentence, the thousands of wonderful sentences which follow might just as well not exist.
In the section on plotting a novel, I talked in detail about the importance of a strong beginning and how to construct one.
More specifically, I talked about introducing the reader to a compelling character and giving that character a pressing problem to solve.
The beginning of a novel, however, accounts for the first two or three (or more) chapters, and agents and publishers and readers will find any excuse they can to stop reading before they have made it that far.
The second question is easy to answer: you will know you have found your ideal opening sentence when you stop trying to improve it or find a better one. In other words, you will just know.
This perfect first sentence might come to you straight away or not until much later. You might recognize it immediately as a great opening sentence or it might take time to grow on you.
Sooner or later, though, it will seem inconceivable to you to start your novel in any other way.
As to what makes for a great opener: that one is not so easy to answer. I can give you a few guiding principles...
But these are, of course, general guidelines only and you should feel free to break them. (It's the old thing: if it works, it works, even if it breaks every rule in the book.)
A better piece of advice is this: make your opening sentence unusual or unexpected or somehow arresting and you are pretty much guaranteed to have a hooked reader on your hands.
That's still very vague advice, though, so here is something more concrete...
Try to write an opening line that raises questions in a reader's mind.
Why? Because when we, as readers, are puzzled by something, our natural instinct is to want to read on to find the answer.
If you do manage to raise a compelling question, don't provide the answer to the question too soon. Sometimes the best way to keep a reader reading is to make them wait.
Of course, there are as many ways to write great opening sentences for a novel as there are novels. And there are plenty of great stories out there which start weakly.
Remember, too, that what might make a great opening sentence in one novel might not work at all in another. (Readers of genre fiction, for example, will want to get stuck in straight away to the nitty-gritty of the plot, while literary fans might be satisfied by a finely-crafted, almost poetic first line.)
Because there are as many ways to begin a novel as there are novels, it is clearly impossible to come up with some sort of formula for writing opening lines.
All I can really do is give you examples of what I believe are great opening sentences, then say why I think they are great. You might agree or disagree with my choices or reasons, but hopefully the exercise will at least provide plenty of food for thought.
The first example of a great opening line comes from John Irving's A Prayer for Owen Meany...
Talk about raising questions! Why is Owen Meany's voice wrecked? How was he involved in the death of the narrator's mother? Most of all, what did Owen Meany do to make the narrator believe in God! You will need to read the entire novel to discover the answer to the last one - and that, of course, was precisely what Irving intended.
Next, the opening line of Dinner at the Homesick Restaurant by Anne Tyler...
Does this raise questions? Yes. First, who is Pearl Tull and why is she dying? Second, what's the funny thought? But what I actually like about this opening line is its unexpectedness - simply because you don't normally associate death with laughter. The sentence, unlike in the previous example, hasn't totally hooked me yet, but it has at least made me want to read on for a while.
Here is the first sentence of Sylvia Plath's The Bell Jar...
When the sentence begins, you think it will be a simple description of the weather (which is kind of a boring way to start a novel), but then you are hit with the electrocution detail - unexpectedness again - before the narrator admits to not knowing what she is doing in New York. The reader will want to stick around while she figures it out.
Now for one of the classic opening lines in literature, one which has lost none of its power in the sixty years since it was published. It is the opening of J. D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye...
Here, the writer is going to the polar opposite of raising questions, which is to refuse to supply any answers - and that in itself is intriguing. But the main incentive to keep reading here, of course, is the voice and attitude of the narrator. How could you not feel compelled to keep reading after an opening line like that?
The beginning of The Catcher in the Rye famously references David Copperfield. Here is how Dickens' novel begins (it is actually the first two lines)...
I added the second sentence because it is the one that Holden Caulfield refers to as "all the David Copperfield kind of crap" above. But the sentence I want to talk about is the first one. Yes, it looks old-fashioned now, but I still believe it is a great way to open a novel and one which it is possible to put a modern twist on.
Next, the opening of City of Glass by Paul Auster...
This, in my opinion, is a near-perfect way to hook the reader. The sentence raises questions - not least, the question of what was started by the phonecall. And the slightly unusual way that the sentence ends ("asking for someone he was not") makes me think that here is a writer who can write.
Here is how Ray Bradbury starts Farenheit 451...
Unexpectedness again. You have no idea what that sentence means, but you want to read on to find out.
And finally, here is the opening of Stephen King's The Gunslinger...
I like this opening line because it gets straight down to business: man being followed by gunslinger - how could you not find that concept exciting? It raises questions, too: who is the man in black, and why is he being followed?
Another reason I love it is that, to my ear, it has an almost poetic quality to it, particularly the second clause ("and the gunslinger followed"). Which just goes to show: anybody who dismisses genre fiction as being strong on plot and weak on everything else doesn't know what they are talking about.
I could go on indefinitely with these examples of well-written opening lines, but I won't. Like I said, you might agree or disagree with my choices, but hopefully this article will force you to think long and hard about the sentences you choose to open your own novels.
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